TAXUS VENIJNBOOM

De eeuwige wedergeboorte

DE TAXUS

yew(eng)      if(fr)          Geslacht  Taxus   Familie  Taxaceae

Groenblijvende naalddragende bomen en struiken. Manlijke en vrouwelijke bloemen op afzonderlijke planten. Zaad gevat in een vleesachtig, vaak rood doorschijnend, omhulsel / schijn besvrucht. Naalden plat, Bovenzijde donkergroen, onderzijde lichtgroen, afzonderlijk ingeplant. Zaad en naalden zijn giftig. Bast roodbruin, bij oudere bomen gedeeltelijk loslatend.

Tekening paul hoftijzer

DE TAXUS   Botanisch

De taxus is een inheemse soort, waarvan de oorspronkelijke variëteit zeldzaam tot zeer zeldzaam is.

  • Taxus BACCATA                   

ook: venijnboom, naast ijf of ief geheten

De Taxus is inheems in Europa, Iran en Algerije. Deze groenblijvende naaldboom met platte naalden kan in vormen worden gesnoeid. De boom kan zeer oud worden, tot wel 3.000 jaar. Hout is hard en duurzaam. Hoogte tot 25 m. Bloemen maart/april, manlijke geel, 0,6 cm, vrouwelijke kleiner en groen, bloeien op aparte bomen. Vruchten rood en 1,2 cm. doorsnede. De bladeren en de bessen(vooral de pitten) zijn zeer giftig.

De hoogste taxus ( 22 meter) staat in Nederland in Warmond(ZH), Huis te Warmond en is gepland tussen 1600 en 1700. De boom met de grootste omvang ( 375 cm) staat in De Steeg (Brantsenpark).

Tekening paul hoftijzer

Bijzonderheden

De taxus is een relictboom en is vooral verdwenen vanwege de giftigheid voor het vee en de geringe marktwaarde van het hout. De bomen kunnen zich uitzaaien via vogels, die de bessen eten.

In de Middeleeuwen was de taxus echter een belangrijke grondstof voor de wapenproductie. Taxushout bevat geen hars, heeft een onbegrensd weerstandsvermogen. Vanwege de uitzonderlijke veerkracht is het hout bij uitstek geschikt voor het maken van bogen. Daarnaast voor stelen van bijlen. De taxus levert ook mooi meubelhout, onderdelen van gereedschappen en fineer op, maar wordt nu nog maar zelden gebruikt. Omdat de taxus zich gewillig laat snoeien is het een waardevolle boom in de tuinkunst: gesnoeid tot allerlei curieuze vormen, zelfs diervormen.

Men vindt de taxus ook veel op kerkhoven. Een goede kwaliteit doolhof is gemaakt van taxus.

Het loof werd vroeger gebruikt bij bepaalde festiviteiten en rituelen. Bij de viering van het oude Keltische nieuwjaar krijgt iedereen een takje taxus als symbool voor het loslaten om hernieuwing mogelijk te maken.

MEDISCH

Uit de Taxus Brevifolia wordt taxol gewonnen. Een stof die van belang is bij de bestrijding van kanker, omdat het de menselijke celdeling tegen gaat. Ook is men bezig een vergelijkbare stof uit de gewone taxus te winnen.

Door natte taxusnaalden te laten smeulen ontstaat een rook, dat muggen wegjaagt.

Een afgekoeld aftreksel van de naalden kan gebruikt worden om nerveus en onrustig vee te kalmeren. Het heeft een enigszins verlammend effect.

houtsnede neeltje & paul

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